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Why are DLS measurements in high concentration solutions difficult?

Dynamic Light Scattering (DLS) is an effective measurement technique used for measuring the hydrodynamic size of common nanomaterials including colloids, nanoparticles, proteins, and polymers. Despite the versatility of this technique, there are several important considerations that cannot be ignored when using light scattering to characterize high-concentration solutions. While it is possible to make measurements on high volume-fraction samples without dilution, it raises additional questions about the meaning of the hydrodynamic size. To understand why this is the case we need to discuss two effects encountered in concentrated solutions: multiple scattering and mutual diffusion.